MAIN AND TRANSFER BUS SUBSTATION SCHEME – BASIC INFORMATION AND TUTORIALS



The main- and transfer-bus scheme adds a transfer bus to the single-bus scheme. An extra bus-tie circuit breaker is provided to tie the main and transfer buses together.

This scheme is arranged with all circuits connected between a main (operating) bus and a transfer bus (also referred to as an inspection bus). Some arrangements include a bus tie breaker that is connected between both buses with no circuits connected to it.

Since all circuits are connected to the single, main bus, reliability of this system is not very high. However, with the transfer bus available during maintenance, de-energizing of the circuit can be avoided. Some systems are operated with the transfer bus normally de-energized.

When a circuit breaker is removed from service for maintenance, the bus-tie circuit breaker is used to keep that circuit energized. Unless the protective relays are also transferred, the bus-tie relaying must be capable of protecting transmission lines or generation sources. This is considered rather unsatisfactory because relaying selectivity is poor.

A satisfactory alternative consists of connecting the line and bus relaying to current transformers located on the lines rather than on the breakers. For this arrangement, line and bus relaying need not be transferred when a circuit breaker is taken out of service for maintenance, with the bus-tie breaker used to keep the circuit energized.


When maintenance work is necessary, the transfer bus is energized by either closing the tie breaker, or when a tie breaker is not installed, closing the switches connected to the transfer bus. With these switches closed, the breaker to be maintained can be opened along with its isolation switches.

Then the breaker is taken out of service. The circuit breaker remaining in service will now be connected to both circuits through the transfer bus. This way, both circuits remain energized during maintenance.

Since each circuit may have a different circuit configuration, special relay settings may be used when operating in this abnormal arrangement. When a bus tie breaker is present, the bus tie breaker is the breaker used to replace the breaker being maintained, and the other breaker is not connected to the transfer bus.

A shortcoming of this scheme is that if the main bus is taken out of service, even though the circuits can remain energized through the transfer bus and its associated switches, there would be no relay protection for the circuits. Depending on the system arrangement, this concern can be minimized through the use of circuit protection devices (reclosure or fuses) on the lines outside the substation.

If the main bus is ever taken out of service for maintenance, no circuit breakers remain to protect
any of the feeder circuits. Failure of any breaker or failure of the main bus can cause complete loss
of service of the station.

Due to its relative complexity, disconnect-switch operation with the main- and transfer-bus
scheme can lead to operator error and a possible outage. Although this scheme is low in cost and
enjoys some popularity, it may not provide as high a degree of reliability and flexibility as required.

This arrangement is slightly more expensive than the single bus arrangement, but does provide more flexibility during maintenance. Protection of this scheme is similar to that of the single bus arrangement. The area required for a low profile substation with a main and transfer bus scheme is also greater than that of the single bus, due to the additional switches and bus.

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