Consider the distribution network shown in Fig. 31.3, where the numbers (1 through 5) indicate fault positions and the letters (A through D) loads. A fault in the transmission network, fault position 1, will cause a serious sag for both substations bordering the faulted line.

This sag is transferred down to all customers fed from these two substations. As there is normally no generation connected at lower voltage levels, there is nothing to keep up the voltage.

The result is that all customers (A, B, C, and D) experience a deep sag. The sag experienced by A is likely to be somewhat less deep, as the generators connected to that substation will keep up the voltage.

A fault at position 2 will not cause much voltage drop for customer A. The impedance of the transformers between the transmission and the subtransmission system are large enough to considerably limit the voltage drop at high-voltage side of the transformer.

The sag experienced by customer A is further mitigated by the generators feeding into its local transmission substation. The fault at position 2 will, however, cause a deep sag at both subtransmission substations and thus for all customers fed from here (B, C, and D).

A fault at position 3 will cause a short or long interruption for customer D when the protection clears the fault. Customer C will only experience a deep sag. Customer B will experience a shallow sag due to the fault at position 3, again due to the transformer impedance.

Customer A will probably not notice anything from this fault. Fault 4 causes a deep sag for customer C and a shallow one for customer D. For fault 5, the result is the other way around: a deep sag for customer D and a shallow one for customer C.

Customers A and B will not experience any significant drop in voltage due to faults 4 and 5.

FIGURE 31.3 Distribution network with load positions (A through D) and fault positions (1 through 5).

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