### KERAUNIC LEVEL AND GROUND FLASH DENSITY BASIC DEFINITION AND TUTORIALS

What Is Keraunic Level?

Keraunic level is defined as the average annual number of thunderstorm days or hours for a given locality. A daily keraunic level is called a thunderstorm-day and is the average number of days per year on which thunder will be heard during a 24-h period.

By this definition, it makes no difference how many times thunder is heard during a 24-h period. In other words, if thunder is heard on any one day more than one time, the day is still classified as one thunder-day (or thunderstorm day).

The average annual keraunic level for locations in the U.S. can be determined by referring to isokeraunic maps on which lines of equal keraunic level are plotted on a map of the country.

What Is Ground Flash Density?

Ground flash density (GFD) is defined as the average number of strokes per unit area per unit time at a particular location. It is usually assumed that the GFD to earth, a substation, or a transmission or distribution line is roughly proportional to the keraunic level at the locality. If thunderstorm days are to be used as a basis, it is suggested that the following equation be used (Anderson, 1987):

Nk = 0.12Td

or

Nm = 0.31Td

where
Nk is the number of flashes to earth per square kilometer per year

Nm is the number of flashes to earth per square mile per year

Td is the average annual keraunic level, thunderstorm days

Lightning Detection Networks
A new technology is now being deployed in Canada and the U.S. that promises to provide more accurate information about ground flash density and lightning stroke characteristics. Mapping of lightning flashes to the earth has been in progress for over a decade in Europe, Africa, Australia, and Asia.

Now a network of direction-finding receiving stations has been installed across Canada and the U.S. By means of triangulation among the stations, and with computer processing of signals, it is possible to pinpoint the location of each lightning discharge.

Hundreds of millions of strokes have been detected and plotted to date. Ground flash density maps have already been prepared from this data, but with the variability in frequency and paths taken by thunderstorms from year to year, it will take a number of years to develop data that is statistically significant. Some electric utilities are, however, taking advantage of this technology to detect the approach of thunderstorms and to plot the location of strikes on their system. This information is very useful for dispatching crews to trouble spots and can result in shorter outages that result from lightning strikes.

#### 1 comment:

1. how does this parameter affect the design of earthing system???